Freckles, age spots
According to the meaning of the common phrase, flaws can be found in everything. However, age spots on the face – this is a flaw that often does not have to be looked for – it itself is perfectly visible and requires masking or treatment.
Beauticians have always tried to help patients get rid of areas of hyperpigmented skin, including freckles and birthmarks. True, for the time being, cosmetology did not possess sufficiently effective means and the attempts were more likely similar to half measures. Today, the beauty industry in terms of knowledge-intensiveness resembles the space industry, and is at the forefront of research.
Skin color is determined by the amount of melanin pigment contained in the cells, which is produced and contains specialized skin cells – melanocytes. They are located mainly in the epidermis, and a little less often in the region of the basal layer. And there are no soles and palms in the skin, which is why even the representatives of the black race have light palms and soles. Scientists have determined that the melanogenic activity of the epidermis is closely related to the genetic program, the content of vitamins and enzymes in the body, endocrine factors, trace elements, and regulation of intracellular skin processes. As long as the melanocytes work according, the skin color remains even. This usually happens at a young age. And over the years, even the owner of the once perfect skin is faced with the appearance of pigmented “irregularities”. This is the faulty inconsistency in the production of melanin – individual groups of melanocytes begin to produce it more actively.
If the pigment is in the surface layers of the skin, the color of the spot will be yellowish or light brown. This is how freckles, sun spots (lentigo), epidermal moles (nevi) look like. When the accumulations of melanin lie deeper, the spots acquire a dark brown, brown color, can rise above the skin level due to the release of blood into the intercellular substance or cell division by the type of tumor. These are usually hyperpigmentation after trauma and inflammation.
So why does pigmentation occur? Most recently, the answer was one – the sun is to blame. However, age spots can also occur in people who are not exposed at all in the sun and do not visit the solarium. Everyone knows examples of the appearance of hyperpigmented skin in pregnant or lactating mothers. Later it turned out – a lot of factors can influence the state of melanocytes, and the first of them, hormonal. With a change in hormonal status, which, in fact, takes place in future and young mothers, a malfunction in the regulation of melanin production occurs. Later it can normalize or not.
In addition, pigmentation can occur due to exposure to chemicals, drugs, lack of vitamins, bruises, regular injuries, improper use of cauterizing substances, and the use of low-quality cosmetics.
Of course, the treatment of hyperpigmentation requires a scientific medical approach, grandfather methods here are either ineffective or unsafe. So what are the combat options in the arsenal of cosmetologists?
Am I whiter in the world?
Whitening creams, masks and other products are used as much as women exist. Today’s drugs of this series are, as a rule, potent substances – with a mono – or multicomponent composition. They may contain toxic additives that can cause allergies, increased pigmentation, therefore, compliance with the instructions and method of use is fundamental here. The most commonly used active ingredients are hydroquinone, kojic acid, hydrogen peroxide, plant extracts and vegetable oils. The most toxic and powerful bleach is hydroquinone. It suppresses the vital activity of all skin cells, but melanocytes are most sensitive to its destructive effect. Therefore, this component can not be used on large areas of the skin. As it can not be used for a long time, a rare disease of ochronosis can develop, and it is contraindicated for pregnant and lactating women. Usually in cosmetology use 2 – 4% hydroquinone.
Kojic acid is less aggressive and is included in the composition of the preparations by many manufacturers of professional cosmetics. In addition to the whitening effect, it has an antioxidant and exfoliating effect – this is a plus, but, unfortunately, gives a lot of cases of allergies.
Ascobic acid, the good old “ascorbic acid,” in a dilution of 5 to 20 percent, is also capable of whitening the skin. It is used both in invasive techniques (needle mesotherapy), and in non-invasive methods (needleless mesotherapy, surface application).
In general, the use of acids is associated with a risk of irritation and allergies, so the selection of funds must be carried out very carefully and with a mandatory test. In fact, whitening procedures include two elements – exfoliation of the stratum corneum and the direct effect on the production of melanin. Exfoliation helps to remove melanin from the epidermis and this leads to lightening the stain.